Equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness through the writing entitled “A number of theories and practices on socialism and path to socialism in Vietnam” by General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong
Abstract: Equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness has been mentioned in different aspects by many ideologists, politicians and scholars. In his writing, General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong has got access to equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness in combination with the shaping of fundamental characteristics, important properties of socialist orientation of the market economy in Vietnam.
Equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness reflects the nature of the political regime, the inevitability of socialist orientation of the market economy in Vietnam
The first political programme of the Communist Party of Vietnam (1930) affirmed that after having seized thenational independence, the Vietnamese revolution would advance towards socialism so that the Vietnamese people would not bear sufferings, exploitation, inequality and could afford a full, free and happy life. Previously, in His work titled “The Revolutionary Path” (1927), leader Nguyen Ai Quoc – Ho Chi Minh regarded the bourgeois revolutionaries of Britain, France and USA as not having gone to the whole hog; after many revolutionaries, the people of these contries remained under exploitation and injustice; so for us, “We have sacrificed to make revolutionaries, we had better make them to the last letter (….). In that way, we can avoid making several sacrifices and our people can be able to enjoy happiness” (1). With His sharp political views based on the study of the theories of Marxism-Leninism and extensive verifications in reality, He had summed up: only socialism can independence for the nation, the real full, free and happy life for all people, all countries be resolved thoroughly. In his writng, General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong continued to stress: “National independence closely associated with socialism is the fundamental, thoroughgoing line of the Vietnamese revolution and also the essential point in the ideological heritage of President Ho Chi Minh” (2).
Right from the beginning and throughout the process of renovation, the Communist Party of Vietnam has affirmed definitely: renovation does not change the goal of socialism, but makes that goal be reached by the more effective forms and measures, conforming to the country’s realities and the characteristics of the transitional period, overcomes the previous dogmatism, subjectivism and voluntarism. When socialism in the Eastern European countries and the Soviet Union was disintegrated (1989-1991), the Communist Party of Vietnam was calm and clear-sighted to analyze the situation, found out the causes and judged very correctly that it was the collapse of a model of unsuitable, voluntary realist socialism, not the collapse of scientific socialism. In that context, the search for the path, the mode for development in such a way as to be suitable to each stage of the path of the transitional period towards socialism demands the abilities, intellect and capacity for theoretical creativity of the Party in power so as to be both consistent in the chosen goal and ideal and to govern effectively the actualization of the goal in each stage of the path of renovation. It should be recognized that the non-socialist elements are still in objective exitence in the transtitional period, but how can it be able to bring into full play the positive aspects, limit the negative aspects, guide and control them so as to serve the cause of socialism? How can it be able to actualize the good values of socialism in the daily life so that the people can acknowledge and enjoy…. is the great challenge to the Party’s leading role and the ruling responsibility? Therefore, “That the concept of development of socialist-oriented market economy is put forth is a very fundmental and creative theoretical breakthrough of the Party, the important theoretical fruit throughout 35 years of implementing the renovation line, starting from the realities of Vietnam and receiving with selection the experience of the world (3), is of very important significance in resolving the above-said challenge. The writing of General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong has established the dialectical viewpoint on socialist orientation in the process of renovation, overcome the hasty, subjective, stage-skipping expressions; or unable to see through the difficulties and complexities of the struggle between the socialist elements and the non-socialist elements in the market ecoomy and international integration; or the one-sided, wrong awareness of modern capitalism.
Through each tenure of the Party Congress in the renovation period, the Communist Party of Vietnam has got a development in awareness of the institution of the socialist-oriented market economy, particularly the tenures of the 12th and 13th Congresses of the Party. However, the awareness of socialist orientation is not completely thorough. A lot of people only have a look at the phenomena, without grasping and understanding clearly the nature of modern capitalism; there are people who have to face the negativities of the market economy, like the differentiation between the rich and the poor, “the group benefits”, corruption, negativities, degeneration of political ideal, morality and life style in a no small part of cadres and Party members,…. so there has arisen among them the doubt about socialist orientation. In that context, the writing of General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong has put forth a dialectical look at the socialist-oriented market economy in Vietnam in a capacity as “a type of a new market economy in the history of development of the market economy; a type of organizing the economy which both observes the law of the market economy and bases on and is guided and governed by the principles and nature of socialism (….). This is not the capitalist market economy and is yet to be the full socialist-oriented market economy (because Vietnam is still in the transitional period)” (4). Here, equal, sustainable development, for the people’s happiness is closely associated with the shaping of characteristics and features of socialist orientation; it implies the differentiation with the full, complete socialist market economy; it contrasts with the “bad development” models in modern capitalism.
Overcoming the once-sided awarenesses, the errors between the form and content, the phenomenon and nature, between the inborn defects of capitalism and some improvements in the local welfare, the outward of modern capitalism,…. the writing has “dissected” the serious diseases deep inside the body of modern capitalism, causing a lot of ever deeper multi-faceted, socially unequal crises. It is the very development that lacks immorality when the rich class only occupies 1% of the population while it has held the large part of the assets, production materials, controlled ¾ of the sources of finance, intellect and the main means of mass media; a large proportion of people has falled into the abject poverty, hunger and poverty, illiteracy, fierce social conflicts, typically the movement of “99 against 1” happened in the USA in 2011 (5). It is the foundationless development when growth has only based on exploiting human labour force without paying attention to renewing, fostering human abilities, social capacities, without creating the opportunities for human comprehensive development, even though the capitalist political regime has always raised “constantly its preaching” about human rights. It is the development that lacks sustainability when the today’s generation has dispossessed the development capacity of the future generation, bled white the resources, causing the environmental degradation and climate change. It is the development that lacks harmony when production and consumption of materials are unlimited and unbalanced between the material life and the spiritual life, pushing to non-standard in value, deviation in life style, and in many cases, wealths are increased, but human beings have to face more of insecurities, risks, unsafety without any real happiness.
This has explained the inevitability of socialist orientation in the process of developing the market economy, taking equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness as a fundamental content. Capitalism in itself is unable to ensure equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness. As for capitalism, the guarantee of equality, sustainability, for people’s happiness is a “luxury”, it only exists in its slogans of populist colour, whereas equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness are the demands in themselves of socialism. Equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness have become an important content that constitutes the fundamental characteristics and property of the socialist orientation, largely different from some local social welfares, outward of modern capitalism aimed at placating the class contradictions, reducing the social conflicts and it cannot be able to settle thoroughly the fundamental issues of development and development management.
Dialectic of equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness in combination with the shaping of a fundamental characteristics, an important property of socialist orientation in the market economy
The writing of General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong has for the first time generalized “A fundamental characteristics, an important property of socialist orientation in the market economy in Vietnam should combine economy with society, unify the economic policy with the social policy, the economic growth should go along with the implementation of social progress and equality right in each step, each policy and throughout the process of development” (6). This is an extremely important contribution to theory, establishing the dialectical viewpoint on development in the trasitional period towards socialism, combining with the shaping of the characteristics, important properties of socialist orientation in the market economy.
Firstly, when equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness is considered as an important content establishing the fundamental characteristics, property of socialist orientation in the market economy, then it should be placed in the right level; making light of equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness is the manifestation of going astray from socialism. On the one hand, “not waiting for the time when the economy has reached the high development level, then equal, sustainable development could be carried out, even equal, sustainable development should not be ‘sacrificed’ to run after the pure economic growth” (7); on the other hand, it is necessary to avoid subjectivism, hastiness, voluntarism, taking the criteria of social progress and equality of the socialist market economy in the full, integrated level to impose them on the socialist-oriented market economy in the different development levels. The manisfestations of subjectivism, voluntarism can be often found: 1/ Implementing social progress and equality is not placed in the dialectical relationship with the economic policy, amassing the resources to ensure social welfares that goes beyond the capacity of the economy, thus limiting the investment in development, landing the economy into stagnation without having sufficient material conditions for implementing the long-term social equality and progress; 2/ Unable to see the diversity of mechanism and form of distribution in the socialist-oriented market economy so as to obtain the social equality and create dynamism for development; 3/Only concentrating on the immediate, short-term growth and development without paying attention to the possibility of the future, long-term sustainable development, particularly the natural resources can be exploited exhaustively, causing environmental degradation.
Secondly, equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness is expressed in the dialectical unification between the economic development and the social development, between the economic policy and the social policy, is placed in the intimately associated relationship, mutual dependence and promotion. It is necessary to make “each economic policy turn towards the goal of social development; each social policy shoud be aimed at creating dynamism to promote the economic development” (8). Being placed in the condition of developing the knowledge-based economy and the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0), when the natural resources have become ever more exchausted, the human and scientific-technological resources have played the key role for sustainable development, then the correct social policy, investment in human development is really the investment in sustainable development. This demands awakening the dynamism for sustainable development from the socio-cultural fields, from promoting the human potential and strength; it is necessary to overcome the deviating awareness when having only one-sided cultural and social enjoyment of the fruits of economic growth without seeing the reversal – culture and society have created the dynamism for the economic development.
Thirdly, equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness is reflected right in each step, each policy and throughout the process of development. This implies that social equality and progress not only is the goal to be aimed at, but also is actualized in each step, reflected in each policy and throughout the process of development of the transitional period. In each stage of development path of the country, combining the recorded achievements in economic growth, it is necessary to make reasonable distributions of growth achievements in order to implement social equality and progress and protection of ecological environment. In the condition of normal development, it is necessary to have a reserve plan so that when there are risks, difficulties or crisis, there still remain the resources to ensure the social policy, like the response to the happening COVID-19 pandemic. Each development policy has the multi-goal character, so it is necessary to ensure the unity between the economic goal and the social goal which can help make mutual promotion to obtain the general efficiency. The economic policy (investment, finance, credit, trade, prices, income and so on) should be geared to create sustainable jobs, ensure the labourers’ rights, balance the harmonious development among the areas, regions, redistribute the income to carry out the social equality, make investments in development of human abilities, social capacities, improve living standards and qualities of the people. The social policy (education, health care, culture, jobs, income, social insurance, social preferences, social assistance and so on) should be directed to make an instrumental contribution to renewing the growth model and improving the growth quality, taking human resources and science and technology as the main impetus for the growth; develop the stable, harmonious and sustainable labour market; improve productivity, quality, effectiveness and competitiveness of the economy.
Fourthly, equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness is implemented by a lot of abundant forms, diverse mechanisms; from equality in opportunities, equality in distribution of production, to equality in rights and obligations; from the economic sustainability and social sustainability to environmental sustainability. Equality in opportunities is, first of all, reflected in determining that the market plays a decisive role in mobilizing, distributing and using the resources (9), making the resources turn to the effective use; the people of abilities always establish themselves in social production and they are encouraged to make legally rich (10). Equality in opportunities is also created by ensuring the right to get access to the basic, essential and free social services or low use fees (education, health care, culture….), making every social member improve their educational, cultural, health levels, …. creating the foundation for sustainable development and have opportunities to develop. It is the guarantee of equality in rights along with equality in conditions to implement the rights (11). Equality in distribution of production results is ensured through a lot of distribution mechanisms, such as the first distribution based on the labour result, economic efficiency, according to the contributed capital and resources; redistribution through the social welfare system, social security and the forms of mutual help and sharing in the community, in which labour distribution is the main form. Social equality in our regime is also reflected in the social preferential policy and in taking care of those who have rendered great services to the country (12)…., in repaying kindsness and gratitude to their contributions and sacrifices for the country and for the revolutionary cause. Equality in rights and obligations is reflected in the correspondence between contributions and benefits, between the level of violation and the level of treatment, through the judicial mechanism based on justice, on socialist rule-of-law foundation. The above-said equality forms has the role of mutual complement that creates both the impetus for development and promotion of social equality in each policy, each step and throughout the transitional period.
Fifthly, equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness is implemented on the basis of building the progressive production relationship, suitable to the development level of the production forces. Building the progressive, suitable production relationship covers three aspects: ownership relationship, the relationship of managerial organization and the distribution relationship which are placed in the condition of developing the socialist-oriented market economy – a new type of the market economy in the history of developing the market economy; a type of economic organization which observes the law of the market economy, bases itself and is guided and governed by the principles and nature of socialism (13). All the three aspects of production relationship have a dialectical, interactive relationship which promotes each other and is of direct significance ensuring the equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness. The ownership relationship plays the most decisive role, but in the transitional period there still exist a lot of ownership forms, a lot of economic sectors; that is why, promoting in a full and correct way the role and function of each aspect of ownership relationship, the managerial organization and distribution are of very important significance to ensure social equality and create the dynamism for development. In the market economy, it is necessary to apply in a flexible way the forms of “public ownership, private governing” (14), “private ownership, public use” (15). Or the distribution relationship should be directed towards “the double function”, both ensuring social equality and creating dynamism for development (16), making all the social subjects always see the direct benefits for all resources (such as land, the assets belonging to the State….), the effective, responsible use, constantly searching, renewing, optimizing the managerial efficiency and promoting sustainable development.
Sixthly, handling well the relationship between the State, the market and society, taking the State’s roleas the leading one when planning and organizing the implementation of the policies on equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness. All the constituents of the State, market and society have got the additional role to compensate each other and to develop together. The market economy has a positive aspect that it distributes effectively the resources, promotes the dynamism and innovation of the subjects in the market and develops production, but its limited aspect is that it often pays attention to the requirements that are able to make payments, to the resources that aims towards where it is possible to bear interests, therefore, no attention is paid to producing the goods, public services, even by running after profits, a lot of enterprises are ready to sacrifice their public interests (such as causing the environmental pollution, producing and trading faked and banned goods) (17). So, there is a differentiation of the rich and the poor, the polarization of wealth, the gap in the development level among the areas and regions, threatening the possibility of sustainable development. That is why, equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness, first of all and above all, needs the strengthen the State’s role and responsibility in building the institution, equal law so as to create an environment for all organizations and individuals to operate freely; use the instruments (plans, planning, tax policy, investment policy, credit policy, job policy and so on) so as to give guidance, attract and regulate the activities of all the economic sectors, in which the interests are regulated to ensure social equality and sustainable development for human beings; renew and raise the operational capacities of the organizations in the public area, particularly in production and supply of goods and public services needed by society, but the private sector does not do it, or if any, it does it ineffectively. Together with it, equal, sustainable development can only be fully implemented when enhancing the enterporises’ social responsibilities; raising the sharing awareness, the spirit of mutual help and love of the social community; promote the positiveness of each people when they joinm the market relationship, use the public services with responsibilities and activeness, without having dependence or expectation.
Concrete instructions on equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness in combination with the guarantee of socialist orientation in the market economy
Firstly, social equality is ensured by “implementing the main distribution according to labour results, economic efficiency, at the same time to the level of capital constribution together with other resources and distribution through the social welfare and social security system” (18).
- The main distribution according to labour results, economic efficiency, according to the contribution of capital and resources is of significance to promote the activeness, dynamism and innovation of each people, promote to the maximum the potential and strength for the economic and social development, resources are distributed effectively, ensuring the unification and synchronism between the distribution relationship and the ownership relationship, the managerial relationship in the multi-sectorial economy. This is the first distribution, creating dynamism for development when it brings about the direct interests to the labourers, the managers, the owners and investors, making the resources be used effectively, promoting the innovation of each people so that they can make rich in a legitimate way and make contributions to society. When the above-said relationships operate smoothly in the institution of the full, modern market economy, it can ensure the equality in opportunities of making rich for all subjects in the market.. However, equality in opportunities of making rich always brings about the advantages to those who have capacities to take advantage of opportunities; disadvantages to those who have limitations or defects in physical or spiritual substances, in capacities to make full use of opportunities (for the inborn reasons, for social risks or the barrier of the natural, cultural and social contiditons), it is advisable to make up, supplement by the form of distribution through social welfare and social security.
- Distribution through social welfare is of important significance, contributing to overcoming and reducing the social inequality arisen from the first distribution. Distribution through social welfare in combination with the State’s regulatory role promotes the enterrises’ social responsibilities, the sharing of the social community with the State’s role as the leading role. Social welfare in the market economy is carried out in many diverse forms, the pilar of which is the basic, essential and free public services or low service fees (education, health care, culture and so on). Social welfare is fully covered by the State (payment of fees, organization of supply), ensuring the right to get equal access for all social members concerning the basic, essential public services, without exception of any body. The forms of social welfare bearing the security function is directed to some concrete objects such as the budgetary support for those who have risks (like the COVID-19 pandemic), the support to the poor people to buy the health insurance, to give scholarships to poor students and so on, ensuring that the disadvantageous objects, the less lucky, low income earners can get access to the goods and the basic, essential public services. When getting access to the free goods and the basic, essential public services (or being given financial support to pay service fees, these objects are not only able to improve their endogenous abilities (physical substance, knowledge, culture….), but also have the condition to save their limited financial source to spend to improve the living quality, and thanks to that, they have the opportunities for development. In addition, the State also gives support, creates conditions for the private sector to participate in supplying some social services to meet the individual requirements and payment capacities of the consumers based on the market principle.
- Distribution through the social security system based on the closed mechanism – enjoyment and sharing, ensuring that all social members can always maintain their mimimal incomes without falling into abject poverty when meeting risks, losing labour capacities or being unemployed – the pilar of which is the sustainable jobs, social insurance and health insurance. If the first distribution can guarantee equality between the contribution level and the reception level, creating dynamism for development, but it creates inequality in income among the social members; distribution is carried out through social welfare to create equality in opportunities and conditions for development, but it is also easy to create stagnation for the supplying units and create the psychology of dependence for the free public service users; while distribution through the social security system is based on the closed mechanism – enjoyment and sharing among the social members with the function of supplementing and compensating the limitations and defects of the first distribution and the redistribution through social welfare. Here, social equality not only reflects the correlation between the constribution level and the reception level or each individual, but also place them in the general surface, the level of economic development and the social moral values. It is impossible to talk about the comprehensive social equality when a social group can enjoy the rich life, while the disadvantageous, less lucky people are left behind due to the inborn elements or the barriers of the geographical-natural, cultural and social conditions. Overcoming the forms of social inequality of natural character needs very much the role of the distribution system based on the sharing mechanism among the social members. It is the development of a society that “turns towards the progressive, humane values, based on the foundation of common benefits of the entire society in harmony with human legitimate interests, largely different in substance as compared to the competitive society to seize the private interests among the individuals and factional groups” (19).
Secondly, equality and impartiality in opportunities are based on the respect and guarantee of freedom in legal, healthy competition without having any behaviour of violating the law on competition, thus losing efficiency and activeness of the market mechanism; creating environment, condition and foundation for human beings’ comprehensive development when the entire people can be able to get access to the basic, essential public services.
- Equality in opportunities is, first of all, based on the respect of freedom in legal, healthy competition, no behavior of violating the law on competition is allowed to lose efficiency and activeness of the market mechanism; thus making each market subject, each social member worthy to having legal, legitimate interests from promoting their inherent abilities and qualities without causing harms to the legitimate interests and rights of other subjects; ensuring the interests of each individual move in the same direction with the common interests of society. The State’s intervention should not distort the market; in the opposite, it should guarantee that competition happens in a wholesome way, correct the market’s defects in an attempt to turn towards a transparent market so that equality in opportunities can be established. In this case, equality in opportunities can create dynamism for development, contrary to the competition so-called “the big fish eats the little fish”, the development of this social group eliminates the right to development of the other social group like what happens in capitalism (20). It is also different from egalitarianism between the people of abilities and the people of less abilities, between the diligent people and the lazy people, thus cancelling out the dynamism for development, causing the injustice to the people who makes a lot of contributions but enjoys the same distributions as those who makes less contributions. Equality in opportunities is not only found in the economic relationship, but also reflects in all the political and social relations when ensuring the democratic, free environment for the people with real virtue, real talent, who are appointed to important posts so that they can strive to establish themselves and make active contributions to society.
- Equality in opportunities is based on ensuring the right to get access to the resources for development, particularly the resources of land, finance, credit and information. The 13th Party Congress lays stress on application of the market principle in mobilizing, distributing and using the resources, particularly the State’s resources, such as auctioning in the right to land use, tendering the packages of public procurement, the competition in supplying and carrying out the market mechanism for the goods and services, including the basic public services (21). The State’s financial resource spent to ensure the social welfare with security function is also applied in conformity with the market principle, aimed towards the goal of promoting the capacities to strive by the objects who receive the support from the State, without causing any stagnation, dependence and reliance. This is the activity of the Bank on Social Policy to ensure the poor households’ right to get access to the credit policy; the support to poor students with preferential credit; the support to job training work so as to change the people’s livelihood…. with a view to promoting the activeness of those who receive the support of resources from the State. In the condition of the digital administration, the digital resources being accessed by the people and enterprises in an equal, open, transparent manner will be able to overcome the state of imbalance in information, thus making a contribution to promoting equality in development opportunities.
- Equality in development opportunities is based on ensuring the right to get access to the basic, essential public services (education, health care, culture….) covering the entire people, thus helping everyone improve their endogenous abilities, self-supporting, having condition to make full use of opportunities to rise thanks to the care for physical development and improvement of educational and cultural levels. Education is really the primary national policy; free elementary education is carried out; the half-public pre-school educational establishments are step by step shifted to the public ones and a deserved proportion of the budget is saved to the spending in education and training in order to promote equality in development opportunities for the people thanks to education, knowledge and skills available for them. This is the budget spending suitable for the development of the health care system, to support the poor people, the ethnic minority people to buy the health insurance, to ensure the low income earners to be able to have medical examination and treatment without “being impoverished”. It is the investment in developing culture, the public spaces (public gardens, green trees, lakes, improvement of living environment….) so as to improve the non-income welfare for the people, making them have more conditions for their physical training, psychological health and ability development when there is a harmony between the material life and the spiritual life.
Thirdly, equality between the rights and obligations combined with the building of the socialist rule-of-law State, promoting the people’s rights to mastery, protecting the law and order, and discipline.
The writing of General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng makes the diference in substance between the socialist rule-of-law State and the capitalist rule-of-law State. If the capitalist rule-of-law is a tool to protect and serve the interests of the boursgeois class, then the rule-of-law State under our regime is an instrument reflecting and implementing the people’s right to mastery, ensuring and protecting the people’s legitimate interests. Through the implementation of the law, the State ensures the conditions for the people to be the subjects of the political power, practice dictatorship for all activities that do harms to the interests of the Fatherland and people (22). So, equality here is reflected in equality of everyone before the law; in the business operation, it is the equality of all market subjects before the law to carry out business freedom; all disputes are settled according to the dispute-settling mode stipulated by the law or to the agreement by the parties (conciliation, negotiation, arbitrary or court); in the justice operation, it is the equality between the character, degree of the behavior of violating the law and the degree of being punished by the law with the impartial and objective decisions and sentences in the name of justice.
Fourthly, sustainable development is mentioned through identification of the happening crisis as the inevitable consequence of the models of “bad development” in the modern capitalism, showing the unsustainability in economy, society and ecological environment (23). So, an important content of socialist orientation is a guarantee for sustainable development harmonious with nature so as to ensure the pure, wholesome living environment for the current and future generations, not to exploit and seize the resources, use materials in a limitless way and destroy environment (24). It is also the determination of the fact that human beings occupy the central position in the development strategy; cultural development, human building are both the target and the dynamism of the renovation; the educational-training and scientific - technological development is the top national policy; environmental protection is one of the vital issues, is the criterium for sustainable development; building a happy, progressive family is the healthy and firm cell of society and implementing gender equality is the criterium of progress and civilization (25).
Fifthly, development for people’s happiness reflects inclusively in all contents, ensuring equal, sustainable development; in the harmony between the material life and the spiritual life; in each people having the conditions for comprehensive development of their own to affirm their human quality; in people being able to live in an environment of freedom, safety, unity, humaneness, mutual assistance, without exploitation and injustice.
The writing of General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong has many times mentioned the concept of “happiness” in the contexts: raising high the ideological value of independenmce, freedom and happiness of President Ho Chi Minh (26), continues to affirm the characteristics of socialism mentioned in the Programme (27), in building a happy family (28), in all the lines of the Party, the policies, laws and activities of the State, all for the people’s interests, taking the people’s happiness as the goal to strive for (29)….
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The writing of General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong is published in the context that the Communist Party of Vietnam, the Vietnamese nation, the Vietnamese people are making great efforts to implement the lines mapped out by the 13th National Party Congress, striving to take Vietnam to the middle of the 21st Century to become a developed country with high income. Making clear the issue of equal, sustainable development, for people’s happiness in combination with the shaping of the fundamental characterisitcs, the important property of socialist orientation is of complementary significance, develops theory on the transitional period in Vietnam, ensuring the effective governing in actualizing the socialist goal in each policy and each step and throughout the process of national renovation./.
(1) Ho Chi Minh: Complete works, Truth National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 2011, tomb 2, p. 292.
(2), (3) Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Communist Review, No. 966, May 2021, p. 6, 8.
(4) Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 8.
(5) See: Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical isues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 5.
(6), (7), (8) Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 8, 9.
(9) See: Documents of the 13th National Party Congress, Truth National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, tomb 1, p. 133.
(10), (11), (12) See: Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 9, 5,9.
(13) See: Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 8.
(14) Infrastructure is under the State’s ownership, but the private sector is leased to operate, govern and exploit; land is under the entire people’s ownership, the State is the representative of the owner and unifies the management, but the right to land use is assigned to organizations and individuals and is considered as the right to property…
(15) The State re-leases the works under the private ownership to use instead of spending the budget to avoid making costly investments, but the State also has the right to levy on property tax and income tax on that private property.
(16) See: Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 8.
(17) See: Đoan Minh Huan: “The issues on handling the relathionship between the State, market and society in management of socio-economic development in our country at present”, Communist Review – Seminar “The relationship between the State, market and society in management of socio-economic development in our country at present”, No. 1-2021, p. 28.
(18) Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 8.
(19) Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the Path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 9.
(20) See: Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 6.
(21) See: The documents of the 13th National Party Congress, Ibid, tomb 1, p. 132.
(22), (23), (24), (25), (26), (27), (28), (29) See: Nguyen Phu Trong: “Some theoretical and practical issues on socialism and the path towards socialism in Vietnam”, Ibid, p. 10, 4-5, 6, 9, 6, 7,9,9.
Source: Communist Review, No. 977 (November 2021)
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Abstract: In the context of globalization, the spiritual value system of Vietnam has undergone a dramatic transformation in the interweavement of old and new, domestic and foreign, universal and special, popular and unique, existing and thriving values. In addition to the opportunities, globalization poses challenges for selecting and constructing the system of spiritual values for Vietnam. The author discusses the solutions for these challenges such as positioning the value system of Vietnam in the current context; forecasting the changes in spiritual phenomena under the influence of globalization; promptly and actively construct the value system by inheriting and modernizing the traditional table of values, integrating international values, which are suitable for the development of the country.
The circular economy promotes sustainable economic development and environmental preservation
The circular economy promotes sustainable economic development and environmental preservation
Communist Review - In Vietnam, the linear model of economic growth is no longer suited for the needs of today's societies that are facing exhausting natural resources and environmental degradation. A circular economy to promote sustainable development and preserve the environment emerged as an urgent need and an inevitable trend during the development process of societies. The 13th Party Congress oriented sustainable economic growth to balance economic and environmental benefits. In the new context, the successful implementation of circular economy approaches is vital and becomes the top priority in national development strategies.
Building digital courts - an important task in the Judicial Reform Strategy
Building digital courts - an important task in the Judicial Reform Strategy
Communist Review - Accelerating the digital transformation and e-court building is an urgent task and an opportunity to strengthen the people's trust in justice, improve operational efficiency and build modern courts. The digital transformation and building of electronic courts are promised to create great values, making an important contribution to the success of the Judicial Reform Strategy in Viet Nam.
Building Vietnam’s national and cultural value systems in international integration
Building Vietnam’s national and cultural value systems in international integration
Abstract: In the renewal effort of Vietnam for the goal of “prosperous people, strong country, democratic, equitable and civilized society”, building a national value system and a cultural value system is an objective need. For each step of national development, a value system is needed to guide, evaluate and adjust social behaviors. On the basis of theory and practice as well as the Party’s awareness of building the national value system and cultural value system, the paper researches on the building of the national and cultural value systems of Vietnam in the new period.